The conduction of energy audit
Any improvement in the energy condition of facilities should be preceded by an energy audit, which determines the directions of energy-saving measures. In the course of the work, the following tasks were set:
- improving the efficiency of using energy resources;
- search for" bottlenecks " in energy consumption;
- development of recommendations for optimizing energy consumption.
Thermal imagers are very useful for energy audits. In thermal imagers, the thermal effect sensor is a semiconductor photodetector. This is a matrix integrated circuit, that is, a plate (chip) in which a set of microdetectors (uncooled bolometers) is created, forming a field for receiving IR radiation (IR-infrared). Processing of electrical signals received at the output of this matrix in accordance with the program set by the microcomputer makes it possible to display a thermal image of the object formed in pseudo-colors on the display screen of the thermal imager. In this case, the temperature scale of IR radiation is reduced in accordance with the pseudo-spectrum reflected on the device screen.
The color scheme of the thermal picture is perceived quite realistically, and areas with very high temperatures are reflected with bright yellow shapes, the middle of the scale is red colors and shades, and blue tones dominate the range of low temperatures. However, the correspondence of the color palette to the values of thermal radiation, expressed in °C, depends on the measurement range chosen by the operator. For example, if the maximum value of the controlled temperature is 500 °C, then the part heated to 50 °C will be drawn in blue-purple tones, and when measuring in the range from -40 to 120 °C - in red.
The energy audit was conducted using a thermal imager in 2003-2007 at 42 facilities in the western Ukraine region. As a result of the survey the following problem nodes of energy resource consumption systems were identified:
- irrational distribution of network heat carriers between individual buildings and structures of the object, which results in excessive consumption of heat carrier by individual buildings, structures, and elements of heating systems;
- insufficient thermal resistance of enclosing structures, which causes excessive losses of thermal energy;
- "parasitic" heat losses by elements of the Heat Supply System and failures in the operation of the water switchgear;
- based on the results of the energy audit, energy-saving measures are proposed;
- a set of organizational measures aimed at creating and operating an energy management system at the facility;
- a set of technical measures to reduce the consumption of heat energy by increasing the level of use of heat energy supplied to the facility, including the installation of Radiator screens to reduce heat loss through radiator niches and the installation of balancing valves on risers of heating systems and entrances to individual buildings (structures) to prevent excessive supply of heat carrier to individual elements of heating systems and buildings;
- a set of technical measures aimed at reducing drinking water consumption and optimizing its distribution among individual consumers, installing pressure limiters at the entrances to individual buildings, and using water intake valves with aeration nozzles;
- a set of technical measures to reduce the consumption of electric energy through the use of new types of power-consuming equipment, the use of modern types of lighting lamps;
- a set of technical measures aimed at developing instrument metering systems for energy carriers, installing technological metering units for heat and water on individual buildings (structures).
The implementation of the proposed measures will allow: the energy component of the budget financing volume to decrease by 0.019 UAH/UAH - from 0.084 to 0.065, that is, by 1.3 times, which estimated reduces the amount of financing for the purchase of energy carriers by 403.0 thousand UAH.